Over the Internet, packet information reaches to the destination network, and waits for the router to decide a route to deliver the information to the right IP port of the network. Routers are the intermediatary devices that determine the best path for the transmission, and the device is a composite of software and hardware. Router gets connected with different networks, LAN, WAN and the device is designed to establish internet work, which allows multiple networks to connect router. The router hardware interfaces with the network hardware and software component in the router consists of operating system and router protocol. Routers can be considered as gatekeepers who do regulate the incoming and outgoing information packets over the Internet.
Types of Routers
Static routers are configured by the network administrator, while a dynamic router does an automatic configuration with its own routing table by using Dynamic host Configuration protocol. The router can further be explained as core routers, edge routers, virtual routers, and bridge routers. Core router decides and sends the packets to the right IP sub network which exists in the entire network. Edge routers sets in the pace of forwarding packets to sub networks that belong to different networks. A backup information of any transmitted data helps the router to use in redundancy protocol to duplicate information packet transmission.
Routers transmit the data packets to the network port by selecting different routing algorithms and the data transfer adopts the OSI model. The most common method is vector routing and state routing, fixed routing, adaptive routing, multicasting routing. Of all, distance vector routing method are dependent on the bellman-ford and ford-Fulkerson algorithms they do find a wider application as they provide a stable optimal path, simple and robust performance. The basic feature enrolled in this system is that every router has a routing table that indexes information in regard to distance, and direction of other routers as well.
Link state routing will establish an information from each router which define the state of links connects to neighbor routers. The link states make use of dijkstras algorithm and the method is called centralized routing thereby sending the updated information to each node.