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Internet Protocol (IP) is a protocol, that is a standard method, to send data between computers.

21.1.78.964-an example of an IP address. This article is a stub and needs expanding. Please expand it!


Introduction

Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communication method by which datagrams are sent across network boundaries.  The routing function of Internet Protocol enables internetworking, and this produces the addressing for the internet. IP is located in the in the network layer of the TCP/IP protocol suite (pictured below).

TCPIP












Internet Protocol is in charge of addressing hosts and routing datagrams from the host to the destination. IP is a connectionless protocol that provides no flow control, no error control, and no congestion control services.


Parts of Internet Protocol


            Internet Protocol consists of one main protocol and three supplementary protocols. The main protocol is Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) which is responsible for packetizing, forwarding, and delivery of a datagram (packet) at the network layer. The first supplementary protocol is the Internet Control Message Protocol version 4 (ICMPv4), which helps IPv4 to handle some errors that occur in the network-layer delivery. The second supplementary protocol is the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP), which is used to help IPv4 with multicasting. The last supplementary protocol is the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), which is used to connect the network and data-link layers. Below is an image of the IP and other network-layer protocols.

Networklayer

How it Works

            Internet Protocol starts with the host computer, which does not yet have an IP address, sending out a DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) Discover message. This message logs onto the server with the default IP address of 0.0.0.0, and requests an IP address from the DHCP server. The DHCP server that receives the DHCP Discover message responds with a DHCP Offer message containing an unleased IP address. The host computer then accepts the DHCP Offer message and responds to the server by broadcasting a DHCP Request that contains the offered IP address, and shows acceptance of the offered IP address. The DHCP server then replies with a DHCPAck (Acknowledge) message that acknowledges the IP address and gives the host a lease on the IP address that usually lasts for 14 days.

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